Created: 11/17/2014 Updated: 8/24/2015
One of the most exciting parts of our newest exhibit Rainforest Adventure, is the added element of having live animals as an intricate part of the experience. Just what are these animals? Read on to find out!View Comments
Upon entering Rainforest Adventure, the first beautiful bird you’ll encounter is Iggy, our Blue-Throated Macaw. This species of macaw is critically endangered. Population estimates vary, but it’s believed that there are between 50 to 400 individuals living in the wild. Blue-Throated Macaws are also far more threatened than their Blue and Yellow Macaw cousins. While the two look very similar, Blue and Yellow Macaws actually have green feathers on the crown of their heads (instead of blue) and black feathers on their throats (instead of blue). Though their habitats are threatened, they’re typically found in Northern Bolivia and can live 30 to 35 years in captivity.
Macaw kindly loaned by Jason J. Crean, American Federation of Aviculture.
Also known as the Violet Turaco or the Violet Plantain-Eater, Violaceous Turacos are typically found in West Africa. Their feathers are a distinctive, glossy violet color, which appears in stark contrast in addition to their red, white and yellow heads and bright orange bills. If you visit Rainforest Adventure, you’ll probably notice that our Turaco is quite active and has a distinctive call.
Turaco kindly loaned by Jason J. Crean, American Federation of Aviculture.
These small to mid-size crocodilians are typically found in Central and South America, and is actually the most common crocodilian due, in part, to its ability to tolerate both fresh and salt water. Their name comes from the bony ridge that is present between their eyes and gives the appearances of glasses. Our Caiman isn't alone, though. Stop by and you'll probably see the Caiman and an African Mud Turtle soaking side by side.
Caiman kindly loaned by the Wildlife Discovery Center in Lake Forest.
Powder Blue Poison Dart Frogs
Poison Dart Frogs, in general, typically measure from half-an-inch to two-and-a-half inches in length. Although their skin produces toxins that can be dangerous when ingested, they don’t synthesize the poison themselves. Instead, they obtain it from what they eat, like ants and centipedes, meaning that the frogs that are raised in captivity don't have these toxins present in their systems. Powder Blue Poison Dart Frogs tend to be larger than most other species of Poison Dart Frogs. Typically, their bodies are primarily black, with an irregular pattern of yellow or white stripes running along their back, flanks, chest, head, and belly. Their legs range from pale blue, sky blue or blue-gray to royal blue, cobalt blue, navy blue, or royal purple and are typically spotted with small black dots.
Frogs kindly loaned by Tundra Exotics and the Chicago Herpetological Society.
Green Tree Python
Green Tree Pythons are typically found in Southeast Asia and Australia. They are often seen in a position known as saddling, as our beautiful python illustrates in the photo above. In saddling, the snake coils its body and lays it over the branch in a saddle position, with tits head placed in the middle. Although it’s visually similar, it shouldn’t be confused with the Emerald Tree Boa which is typically found in South America. They are actually only very distantly related.
Python kindly loaned by the Wildlife Discovery Center in Lake Forest.
Created: 11/7/2014 Updated: 8/8/2016One hundred seventy-nine years ago today, one of the most important figures in the history of the Chicago Academy of Sciences and its Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum was born -- Robert Kennicott. His work lives on through the Nature Museum, but did you know that even before the birth of the Academy, his work helped naturalists and biologists better understand the zoology of Illinois as a whole?
Robert was born to Dr. John and Mary Kennicott in New Orleans on November 13, 1835. The family moved to Illinois while Robert was still an infant, and settled in an area that would later become Glenview. Dr. Kennicott dubbed their home "The Grove," landscaping the property with walks, shrubbery and flowers. His father's love of horticulture and the outdoors undoubtedly had a profound impact on Robert. So much so that in the winter of 1852, Robert traveled to Cleveland to study under Dr. J.P. Kirtland, a naturalist and co-founder of what would become the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.View Comments
Specimen collected by Robert Kennicott in 1855 in Union Co., Illinois
In 1853, Robert returned home and began building and categorizing his collections, including fishes and reptiles native to northern Illinois. In the summer of 1855, at the age of 19, the opportunity arose to catalog the wildlife of Illinois on an even larger scale. The Illinois Central Railroad had just completed a track that ran from Chicago south to Cairo. In order to help publicize the wealth of the plant and animal life that ran along this new route, Illinois Central approached the State Agricultural Society in hopes of creating a preliminary survey of the state's natural resources. Participants in the study would be able to collect along the route, disembarking and embarking on any train they wanted. The Agricultural Society would just have to train the would-be researchers in the ways of natural history collecting. Robert's father, John, was the Society's secretary and recommended Robert for the job.
He left for Southern Illinois on May 30, 1855 and worked on the project, hopping from train to train, for three months. Robert had hoped to make a compete catalog of the state's zoology, and viewed this assignment as just first step towards that goal. Kennicott's efforts did have a lasting impact. In late 1855, the Illinois State Agricultural Society published his findings as the first "Catalogue of Animals Observed in Cook County, Illinois" (even though the animals had primarily been observed in the southern part of the state). You can find his original study, and read it, here.
Sources:Ronald S. Vasile, “The Early Career of Robert Kennicott, Illinois’ Pioneering Naturalist,” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, vol. 87 (1994): 150-70
Created: 11/7/2014 Updated: 8/8/2016
The average Chicagoan doesn't get the chance to experience the rainforest, but thanks to our new exhibit, Rainforest Adventure, families will get the chance to do just that. This temporary exhibit introduces visitors to rainforests around the world, highlights the challenges they face, and suggests ways that people can help positively impact these threatened habitats.Kids will love the fact that they can explore a gorilla nest, climb a 9-foot kapok tree, play the role of a conservationist research assistant, and explore through a variety of different interactive exhibit features. In addition to these interactive features, though, the Nature Museum has brought a personal touch to the exhibit with the help of some live animals and specimens from our collection.Six types of live animals can be found in the exhibit's main hut, including a Blue-throated Macaw named Iggy, a Violaceous Turaco, Powder Blue Poison Dart Frogs, a Green Tree Python, a Spectacled Caiman, and an African Mud Turtle. In addition to the live animals, preserved specimens of a Peach-faced Lovebird, Salmon-Crested Cockatoo, and a variety of colorful beetles are also on display.Iggy and the other rainforest critters are the stars of the exhibit, particularly when the Museum biologists interact with them in their enclosures and teach visitors about their way of life.The Rainforest Adventure exhibit isn't the only tropical environment in the Museum, though. You can visit the Judy Istock Butterfly Haven just down the hall to get a closer look at 75 species of insect life and birds in a tropical region.Although Chicago and the closest rainforest are thousands of miles away, we're actually connected to them in a variety of ways. The purchasing habits of people in North America are one of the chief drivers of rainforest destruction. These purchasing habits are often directly related to unsustainable agricultural, ranching, mining, and logging practices in these delicate ecosystems. Unfortunately, these practices and habits have resulted in a drastic reduction of rainforest animals. It's estimated that the number of animals in a rainforest has decreased by about 40% because of these practices alone.So, what steps you and your family can take to help conserve and protect the rainforest? Get some inspiration from Nature's Struggle featured conservationist Madison Vorva here, and be sure to visit the Rainforest Adventure exhibit in person.View Comments
Created: 10/31/2014 Updated: 8/8/2016
I have recently received many questions about feeding animals so I thought a general discussion about backyard feeding of animals like birds and squirrels would be useful. Feeding animals can be fun and it provides an opportunity to watch the animals closely. On the other hand, feeding can concentrate diseases dangerous to the animals and sometimes to you, and can attract pests and predators.
To deal with the disease problem keep your feeders, baths, and the area you feed in clean and sunny. Also keep an eye on frequently used perches and loafing areas. Remove food debris daily, hose down everything with water, use soap when appropriate (I like Dawn best—skip anti-bacterial varieties) and use a mild bleach solution to regularly clean bird baths, feeders and other appliances. Rinse and dry well. UV light is your friend -- it kills most disease causing organisms pretty quickly but it doesn’t penetrate shade or underneath objects.
You might also consider moving your feeding site around. It’s difficult to remove every last bit of chaff, crumbs, and poop, but ants, earthworm, millipedes and many other garden organisms will do the final cleanup for you. While these invertebrates are beneficial components of our neighborhoods, rats and mice are pests that will also move in to clean up debris from your feeding stations. The reason rats and mice are a problem is because they can cause substantial economic damage through their gnawing and foraging activities. More importantly, they can carry diseases that can be readily contracted by humans. Many municipalities have banned bird feeders simply because they quickly become rodent feeders and thus a public health concern. By keeping a scrupulously clean feeding station, you greatly minimize the chance of making your yard a vector of human or wildlife disease.
Although you may have certain species in mind when you put out a feeder, many species will be influenced by the additional food you have introduced to the environment. To maximize the chances of seeing your target species, make sure you are providing the most appropriate food. If you want to see goldfinch, you must supply thistle seeds. If you supply hazelnuts you might see squirrels and woodpeckers, but sparrows will ignore you. Cracked corn is, in general, just a filler that does little to attract the species most people want to see. If it is present in your seed mix, there’s a good chance it will be tossed out of the feeder in favor of more palatable food like millet only to later attract rodents. Regardless of what you put out though, you will also attract non-target species. Sugary hummingbird feeders will also give you a chance to watch a variety of bee species. Seed feeders will often bring squirrels to your yard, but the songbirds they attract will also bring raptors. These birds of prey can’t feed their young on seeds, they must have meat. Don’t feel badly if you find feathers and other sign of a predation even hear your feeder. This is simply an indication that nature is at work in your neighborhood maintaining the strength of your avian friends and increasing biodiversity.
If you want to minimize predation you can feed infrequently or move your feeder around regularly. While this will keep the predators guessing, it will also keep your target species guessing so you might not see the large and regular concentrations of birds that you would with a more regular feeding time and place. Of course, if you are unlucky enough to live in a place where cats roam at will, nothing you do will be enough to prevent predation and you will have less diversity at your feeders.
Finally, when choosing a place to put your feeder, make sure you don’t become the predator — via your house. Windows can kill a lot of birds. During the day, birds usually hit windows because of a mirror effect where the window looks like open sky or a sheltering bush. At night, lights lure birds too close. There are many online resources to help you determine how to prevent your house from becoming a deathtrap. Making the windows visible is important. It’s hard to avoid putting feeders in places where there is some danger from windows though, since a primary reason for feeding animals is to see them better. So, in general, feeders should be sited close to the windows. This not only improves viewing but it also limits the danger of windows for birds because, if they are frightened when at the feeder and take off in the direction of the window, they aren’t flying very fast when they hit it. If the feeder is further, the bird gathers enough speed to cause a concussion when it hits.
Created: 10/20/2014 Updated: 8/8/2016
The first full weekend of every month, the Nature Museum becomes a herpetologist haven! That's when the Chicago Herpetological Society and the Junior Herp Society hold their monthly meetings, and invite the public to join in on the fun. What is the Herpetological Society? In this post, the Chicago Herpetological Society's Rich Lamszus introduces us to it.
The Chicago Junior Herpetological Society
The Chicago Junior Herpetological Society is about sharing the love of amphibians and reptiles with the younger generation, and fostering an appreciation of wildlife and nature through educational speakers and hands-on interaction.
The goal of the CJHS is to establish a learning environment where younger kids are mentored by older kids with knowledge of reptiles and amphibians, under adult supervision, in the beautiful museum setting. The regular monthly meetings of the Chicago Junior Herpetological Society take place at The Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, on the Sunday of the first full weekend every month, from noon till about 1:30. Meetings are free to members of the CHS and visitors to the museum.
The next meeting will be on November 2 and will be our second anniversary meeting. Our speaker will be Yvette Mendez and her topic will be Reptile Parents and Reptile Babies. Colleen’s Critter Corner will feature frilled lizards and blue tongued skinks and differences in keeping them.
You can learn more about the CJHS here.
The Chicago Herpetological Society
The Chicago Herpetological Society is a non-profit all volunteer organization dedicated to the conservation of all wildlife, especially reptiles and amphibians, the cooperation of amateur and professional herpetologists toward a more complete understanding of herpetofauna, and the education of the general public about these often misunderstood but fascinating animals.
The CHS, established in 1966, is made up of hundreds of people who love reptiles and amphibians and want to do what they can to help other people understand this not-so-mainstream devotion. From encouraging the public not to fear snakes, to helping someone learn how to take care of her brand new gecko, we are spreading knowledge and spreading compassion for these creatures who are so often labeled in a negative way. We welcome anyone who shares our passion to join us! General meetings of the Chicago Herpetological Society are held on the last Wednesday every month at 7:30pm at the Notebaert, with the exception of Christmas Eve this year. Meetings are free to attend.
The next meeting on October 29 will feature news and announcements, an awesome raffle and our speaker will be Chris Gillette. The topic will be “Behavior of American alligators and crocodiles in captive and wild situations”. We are also gearing up for next year’s ReptileFest, the nation’s largest educational herpetological event. ReptileFest 2015 will be on April 11 and 12, from 10am to 5pm in the University of Illinois Phys Ed building. Mark your calendars, this will be the 22nd year of this wonderful show. You can learn more about the Herpetological Society here, and learn more about ReptileFest here.
Hope to see you there!
CHS, CJHSView Comments
Created: 10/15/2014 Updated: 8/8/2016
First, let’s get one thing straight. Pests are only pests because they’re doing something that interferes with something you want to do. Western ranchers view wolves and bison as pests; pelicans and cormorants are pests to some fishermen while snakes and otter are pests to others; a bobcat is beautiful to most people but can be a pest to a chicken farmer.
That said, rodents can significantly interfere with some of our goals related to our gardens, homes, and health. The range of solutions to the problem is more or less the same regardless of whether we’re dealing with a mouse, vole, chipmunk, tree squirrel, or even a lot of non-rodents.
I don’t like to use poison in most cases. First of all, any poison that can kill one kind of mammal, can kill any other kind of mammal; this includes you, your neighbors, and many pets. Such poisons usually also kill birds, reptiles, and fish.
To reduce the likelihood that “non-target” species will ingest the poison, it is mixed with wax, grain, and flavoring to form a little block that is then put into a plastic box that the rodent has to crawl into to access the poison. However, if the poison killed quickly, the rodent population would eventually figure out that they shouldn’t eat it. Instead, many of these poisons work by making the gastrointestinal tract leaky. Essentially, over time, whatever ate the poison will bleed to death internally.
Poisoning is a slow death. Worse, the animal may die in a place where a dog or cat, hawk or owl, or some other animal may eat it, then die of secondary poisoning. Assuming the poisoned pest is not eaten, it may die inside your wall or crawl space, often making quite a stink. The stink is relatively short term though and when it goes away you may think all your troubles are over. However, you now have a mummified body in your wall which will attract a wide range of insects, notably the Dermestid.
Dermestids are a kind of beetle which, as larvae, feed on dead, dry flesh. They will also feed on leather, fur, wool, and many other fibers and textiles. They can very quickly build up large populations even on something as small as a mouse carcass. Eventually they spread through the house and will happily eat that nice jacket you stored away during the summer, or your carpets, even the feathers in your pillow. Having eliminated a single rodent pest by poison, you now have hundreds or thousands of insect pests to deal with.
Sometimes though, poison is the only solution. It can be used very effectively when deployed and monitored by trained and dedicated people. But, in a household situation, poison is rarely a good solution and often causes more problems than it solves. Instead, try one of these alternatives:
For a problem that is acute – that is you have a pest currently causing damage – a trap can solve the problem quickly. Snap traps, box traps (like the Tomohawk or Havahart for large animals, or the Sherman for small ones), repeating traps, and sticky traps are all options, but some a better than others.
I like snap traps. When baited correctly in a household situation, they rarely capture non-target species. They usually kill cleanly and humanely without any training on the part of the operator. They don’t need to be monitored because either they caught something and killed it or they didn’t catch anything. If you’re afraid of catching your fingers while setting traditional snap-traps, shop around for plastic ones that can be set by simply stepping on a treadle.
Box traps and repeating traps are very useful but have two problems for the homeowner. They need to be monitored daily to ensure trapped individuals don’t suffer for lack of food and water. Monitoring has the added problem of disturbing the site and reducing trap success. The worst problem though, is that once you catch something, it has to be killed. Most homeowners simply don’t have the skills to humanely and cleanly kill rodents.
The challenges of monitoring and euthanasia are compounded with sticky traps. From the moment the animal enters the trap, it begins suffering. These traps capture a wide range of non-target species, including reptiles, amphibians, and birds. Vegetable oil can be used to free an animal from the goo but a residue will remain that can impede movement and grooming, and the stress of handling is often enough to kill the animals a short time later. There are small sticky traps with a very thin coating of goo that are designed to aid in insect monitoring. I use these regularly but I don’t see any good reason to use the sticky traps designed to catch rodents.
In household situations, I advocate strongly for snap traps. Regardless of situation or trap though, trap placement will strongly influence trapping success.
Created: 10/8/2014 Updated: 8/8/2016
(Do you need an introductory paragraph? No. No you do not. So I’m not writing one. If you’re unsure about what subject matter you will encounter in the following paragraphs, please reread the title. Thank you for your understanding. This really saves me a ton of work.)
Foliar FlaggingSumac exhibiting foliar flagging
You remember how you were taught in school that chlorophyll masks the other pigments present in leaves, and that when chlorophyll production stops in the fall, these pigments become visible? Of course you do, because you loved science, which makes you wholly superior to those mouth-breathers who’ve forgotten all about leaf pigmentation. But did you ever stop to wonder what those other pigments are doing in the leaves in the first place? Well, it turns out they might be doing lots of things. Like murder. Or something more benign, but equally fascinating, like foliar flagging.
Let’s say you’re a sumac tree. You want birds to eat your berries, because they will then fly away, pooping out your progeny hither and yon like tiny, gross little Johnny Appleseeds. So you make your berries bright red and obvious to hungry birds. But birds are kind of dumb, so why stop with the berries? Why not turn your leaves a similar color, so even the most dim-witted and unobservant avian can’t help but notice you and your pretty berries, free for the munching? Turns out a number of trees and shrubs use this strategy – certain dogwoods and Virginia creeper to name a couple.
Conifers That Didn’t Get the MemoDawn Redwood
Ever have one of those dreams where you show up to school naked and everyone else is fully clothed? And then your substitute teacher shows up, except it’s Henry Kissinger in a clown costume, and he announces that he’s your real father? No? Just the first part, you say… Huh… Anyway, if you’re a Dawn Redwood, a Larch, a Tamarack, a Bald Cypress, or a Chinese Swamp Cypress, (or a Ginkgo, if you wanna be inclusive) you live out that archetypal Freudian quagmire every fall. All the other conifers are standing there fully clothed in green needles, while yours are falling away, one by one, until there you are all starkers, just in time for the coldest part of the year. Why? Aren’t there good reasons why needle-leaved plants are typically evergreen? Yes, but look at the big picture. There are advantages to having needle-shaped leaves: they retain water better, they’re less attractive to insects, and they take fewer nutrients to produce than broad leaves. And there are advantages to being deciduous: it avoids problems with freezing and over-drying in winter, reduces herbivory, and prevents breakage from snow and wind. So it’s not too surprising that some trees can make the seemingly contradictory “deciduous conifer” lifestyle work for them.
Free Stuff You Can EatYew berries
Autumn is not just about pretty colors, falling leaves, and the sudden appearance of pumpkin spice everything. The fruits of many plants also mature at this time of year, making it the perfect time for nature snacking. Those aforementioned sumac berries, for example, make a nice tea. (You’ll want to sweeten it. It’s sour from malic acid, the same stuff that’s in a sour apple.) Or try some hackberries – they’re ripe when they’re smooth and dark brown. If you value your teeth, don’t bite down hard; just chew off the outer coating. You’ll see why they’re also called sugarberries.
If you’re feeling really adventurous, try a yew berry, but DO NOT EAT THE SEED INSIDE!! It’s poisonous. I’m serious about this, guys. Deadly. Freakin’. Poisonous. However, the flesh of the red ‘berry’ (not really a berry, but that’s a subject for a different blog post) is sweet, non-toxic, and sort of gelatinous. To be safe, squeeze the seed out, throw it away, and lick the fruity goop off your fingers. You’ll be glad you dared yourself to try it.
Created: 9/26/2014 Updated: 8/24/2015
This week's post was contributed by artist Molly Schafer. Her work, along with that of her friend Jenny Kendler and other artists, can currently be seen at the Nature Museum as part of the "Rare Nature" exhibit (open through October 19). The exhibit features limited edition prints of endangered species, with proceeds going toward conservation efforts. In this post, Schafer describes the Endangered Species Print Project's origin story.
Jenny and I met in graduate school at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago. We were both making art about the natural world. We talked about wanting to make more of a contribution to conservation efforts, but we were somewhat at a loss as to how since our skill set revolved around drawing and painting.
"Rare Nature" exhibit currently on display at the Nature Museum (Photo by Jim Schafer)
As children we both were obsessed with these illustrations of endangered species in outer space that decorated our folders and binders. The message of these images was that endangered species were magical and rare. As kids, that made them much neater to us than “regular” animals. As artists, it made us think of how monetary value is assigned to art objects. One of a kind, rare pieces are considered more desirable. The less endangered an animal was, the less precious it seemed, at least to our nerdy younger selves.
Seychelles Sheath-tailed bat (Print by artist Molly Schafer)
This unsettling thought gave us the concept for the Endangered Species Print Project (ESPP). ESPP creates art prints of endangered species with limited editions to mirror the small number of individuals remaining in the wild. For example, the Seychelles Sheath-tailed bat is critically endangered with only 37 individuals remaining, so the print-run is limited to 37 prints. Once all 37 prints are sold the edition is sold out. Proceeds from the sale of prints benefits the animal or plant represented in a print.
We started the project in 2009 with Jenny and I creating the artwork for the prints. Today ESPP has raised almost $12,500 for conservation with 26 prints by 14 different artists. All contributing artists donate their time and finished work to bring attention to the extinction crisis.
Visit Rare Nature at The Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum to see the prints and learn about the amazing variety of plants and animals that are endangered like the Vaquita (the world’s smallest porpoise), the Javan rhino (who is so rare it has barely been photographed), and the Guam Micronesian Kingfisher (a bird that is currently extinct in the wild but still has a chance thanks to a breeding program right here in Chicago).
Molly Schafer & Jenny Kendler (Photo by Michael Czerepak)
Molly SchaferView Comments
Created: 9/22/2014 Updated: 8/8/2016
The following post was contributed by artist and photographer J.J. L’Heureux. L’Heureux’s prints of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are currently on display as part of the Nature Museum’s exhibition “Faces from the Southern Ocean.” In this post, she describes visiting Antarctica’s Snow Hill Island Emperor Penguin Rookery and some of the snowy challenges she and her group encountered.
I was raised in Michigan and I am not unmindful of harsh winter conditions. The trip to the Snow Hill Island Emperor Penguin Rookery added some new twists on winter. In order to visit the rookery we had to helicopter from the ship to a landing site about two kilometers from the rookery and behind a grounded iceberg. The first day we did this the day was lightly overcast, a little windy and just a bit cold.
Weddell Seal Pup (J.J. L’Heureux)
Antarctica is all about snow and what 100,000 years of snow looks like in all its forms. There is an enormous amount of ice that was really snow that did not melt. Antarctica is also the driest continent on Earth and yet it has most of the fresh water of Earth locked up in the ice that can be miles thick. The ice is created by snow falls that generally do not melt. From year to year, these snow falls build up on one another and ice is created by the pressure of each new layer covering the thousands of previous snow falls. The skin on top is often crusty snow or ice particles. When a wind comes up blizzard conditions can develop almost immediately, even if there are no clouds or fresh falling snow. The wind-driven snow then acts like a Zamboni on a hockey rink. The ice that lies beneath the crusty skin becomes extremely smooth and slippery. The higher the velocity of the wind, the harder it becomes to walk on the very smooth, slippery ice. These conditions briefly describe the second and third days on the ice south of Snow Hill Island. It was challenging to walk upright; the high wind and slick surface were difficult for everyone including the penguins. In fact, most of the Emperors were tobogganing across the ice rather than walking to the open sea to fish seven or eight miles away.
Emperor Penguin Chick (J.J. L’Heureux)
Drifting snow/ice crust builds up when the sun melts the surface covering and it then freezes during the night and stays frozen until the sun comes out again or there is a new snow fall. There were drifts to be negotiated on the back and forth treks across mostly barren slippery ice to the rookery. Since the crusty surface of the drifts had been wind swept away one sometimes found themselves in knee deep or waist deep drifts that would not support your weight. The smart thing then was to play follow the leader, just like the penguins, and make a path through these drifts. These paths are always blazed by a lead party that checks for crevices or other hidden dangers and they lay out a red flag marked trail. At one point I stepped one foot off the path and went into the drift such that I could not free myself. Fortunately, right behind me was Russ Russell, a mining engineer from Guernsey, who is easily 6' 6" and capable of Superman feats. He just reached out and like the cranes that bring the zodiacs aboard, lifted me effortless from my snowy prison. Keep in mind that we were working against high winds and vertical snow. The second and third days were the most difficult for me because the cloud cover contributed to colder conditions and much darker lighting.
This provides a sense of the conditions for the three particular days of the Snow Hill Island Emperor Penguins Rookery landings, and under these conditions many wonderful and special events took place that one can only marvel at in their uniqueness.
Read more about J.J. L’Heureux’s experiences in the Southern Ocean and Antarctica by visiting her blog. You can also learn more about her work by visiting her site, Penguinspirit. Get a glimpse into the world of the Southern Ocean by visiting the “Faces from the Southern Ocean” exhibition, now on display.View Comments
Created: 9/19/2014 Updated: 8/9/2016
The most common tree squirrels in our region are the grey (Sciurus carolinensis) and the fox (S. niger). Both of these species are scatter hoarders. That is, they bury nuts in random places across the landscape. In contrast, the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) is a larder hoarder. This means they put all of the food they have gathered in only a few places, like a hollow log or under a rock.
Grey squirrel caching
These two strategies have costs and benefits. A larder hoarder can defend its cache from other squirrels, nut and seed eating birds, and many other species that might rob it of food. Even you may have been scolded by a red squirrel when you inadvertently came too close to its larder. On the other hand, there’s not much a red squirrel can do to deter a determined black bear from raiding the squirrel’s cache. Scatter hoarders don’t have to worry about bears but they do lose a lot of their nuts to competing squirrels and birds, and simply because they can’t find the food once it is buried.
Fox squirrel eating
These two different foraging methods also result in red squirrels having relatively large territories. You don’t often see lots of red squirrels in the same place at the same time. On the other hand, there are many places where you might see more than a dozen grey squirrels foraging together.
One thing that does bring lots of squirrels together is bird seed. If seed is buried it either rots or germinates. Either way, it is not very useful to squirrels so, rather than run around caching, as they do with nuts, squirrels will simply sit and eat the seed. The threat of predators and more aggressive squirrels keeps them moving around a little but they are otherwise perfectly happy to sit at the dinner table and eat.
Chipmunks, though, have a different strategy. They have check pouches. This allows chipmunks to literally stuff their faces full of food, then run back to their burrow, dump the food, and return for more once they think the coast is clear. In this way, they can collect plenty of food to eat, while only exposing themselves to the danger of predation for relatively short amounts of time. The seeds they gather are stored in cool, dry rooms (the same way we store grain) so it stays fresh and nutritious through the winter. This foraging strategy is so successful that chipmunks have become our most common ground squirrel in urban areas.
Have you ever wondered why you don't see baby squirrels as often as you see adult squirrels? Learn why in this post.