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  • How to Eat, but Not be Eaten — Foraging Strategies of Four Urban Squirrel Species


    Tags: squirrel, squirrels, urban ecology, chipmunks, chipmunk, chicago, chicago wildlife

    Created: 9/19/2014      Updated: 8/9/2016

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    The most common tree squirrels in our region are the grey (Sciurus carolinensis) and the fox (S. niger). Both of these species are scatter hoarders. That is, they bury nuts in random places across the landscape. In contrast, the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) is a larder hoarder. This means they put all of the food they have gathered in only a few places, like a hollow log or under a rock.

    Grey Squirrel digging in the ground

    Grey squirrel caching

    These two strategies have costs and benefits. A larder hoarder can defend its cache from other squirrels, nut and seed eating birds, and many other species that might rob it of food. Even you may have been scolded by a red squirrel when you inadvertently came too close to its larder. On the other hand, there’s not much a red squirrel can do to deter a determined black bear from raiding the squirrel’s cache. Scatter hoarders don’t have to worry about bears but they do lose a lot of their nuts to competing squirrels and birds, and simply because they can’t find the food once it is buried.

    Fox Squirrel eating in a hole in a tree

    Fox squirrel eating

    These two different foraging methods also result in red squirrels having relatively large territories. You don’t often see lots of red squirrels in the same place at the same time. On the other hand, there are many places where you might see more than a dozen grey squirrels foraging together. 

    Red squirrel on a rock

    Red squirrel

    One thing that does bring lots of squirrels together is bird seed. If seed is buried it either rots or germinates. Either way, it is not very useful to squirrels so, rather than run around caching, as they do with nuts, squirrels will simply sit and eat the seed. The threat of predators and more aggressive squirrels keeps them moving around a little but they are otherwise perfectly happy to sit at the dinner table and eat.

    Chipmunks, though, have a different strategy. They have check pouches. This allows chipmunks to literally stuff their faces full of food, then run back to their burrow, dump the food, and return for more once they think the coast is clear. In this way, they can collect plenty of food to eat, while only exposing themselves to the danger of predation for relatively short amounts of time. The seeds they gather are stored in cool, dry rooms (the same way we store grain) so it stays fresh and nutritious through the winter. This foraging strategy is so successful that chipmunks have become our most common ground squirrel in urban areas.

    Have you ever wondered why you don't see baby squirrels as often as you see adult squirrels? Learn why in this post.

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  • Music to Photosynthesize by -- The Favorite Bands of Plants (as Imagined by a Sleep-Deprived Horticulturist on a Rainy Day)


    Tags: plant names, plants, music, bands

    Created: 9/15/2014      Updated: 8/9/2016

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    It’s raining. Again. (For those of you keeping score at home, most of Chicago is now 8-12 inches above normal rainfall for the year.) This is a good thing in that I have barely touched a hose or sprinkler all summer. But there is also a downside to these soggy mornings, as I sometimes find myself spending too much time at my desk flipping through garden supply catalogs and clicking the email refresh button. On such occasions, inspiration for a great new blog post will sometimes mercifully find me. I’d like to say that this is exactly what’s happening just now – a genius idea is percolating in my mind, and it’s all I can do to keep it contained until it essentially writes itself. But today is not one of those times. Today, I am tired. It’s chilly in this office. I had Pop Tarts for breakfast. These and other excuses are why I am subjecting you to the following bizarre and half-baked blog entry. Sorry about this.

    So, here we go: Favorite bands of various plants – a thought experiment.

    Plant: Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) | Favorite Band: The Sex Pistols

    RagweedJohnny Rotten
    (John Lydon photo via Ed Vill/Wikimedia Commons CC BY 2.0)

    Ugly. Crass. Generally unwelcome and proud of it. These traits apply equally well to the plant and to stars of the early punk movement. Like a young John Lydon, ragweed hates you, and it does not care if you know it.  It throws pollen in your face and laughs when you itch and sneeze. And it sneers at the class system you’ve created to separate garden flowers from weeds – a system that relegates it to life in alleyways, ditches, and vacant lots. Out on the street, it grows angry and defiant, looking for ways to cause trouble. Lydon got the name Johnny Rotten because of his poor oral hygiene. Have you ever seen ragweed shopping for toothpaste? Just sayin’.

    Plant: Midnight Horror Tree (Oroxylum indicum) | Favorite Band: Slayer

    Midnight Horror TreeSlayer
    (Slayer photo via Francis/Wikimedia Commons CC BY 2.0)

    Why Slayer, the most metal band of all time? Because Oroxylum indicum is the most metal tree of all time. This plant gets its name from its long seedpods, which on moonlit nights look like swords or daggers hanging from the branches. Also known as the broken bones tree, its large leaf stems tend to accumulate at the base of the trunk, looking for all the world like a pile of ribs and femurs.  And of course, it blooms at night, attracting bats as its primary pollinator. Hails and horns, Oroxylum. Long may you Reign in Blood.

    Plant: Harry Lauder’s Walking Stick (Corylus avellana ‘Contorta’) | Favorite Band: The Grateful Dead

    Harry Lauder’s Walking StickJerry Garcia
    (Harry Lauder's Walking Stick photo via Malcolm Gin/Wikimedia Commons CC BY SA 3.0, Jerry Garcia photo via Carl Lender/Wikimedia Commons CC BY 2.0)

    Harry Lauder’s walking stick, otherwise known as contorted hazelnut, is a cultivated variety of the European filbert. It is grown as an ornamental for its unusual, twisting stems. So how did they get that way? Well, imagine if you will, a young, naïve filbert tree at its first Dead show. It meets some new friends. One thing leads to another. The music begins, and soon, there is no more up or down for our little tree. Its branches, much like the band’s music, begin to loop and twist endlessly with no pattern or direction. Each song seems to last for hours as the concert stretches deep into the night. The tree is forever changed. The next morning, it hitches a ride to California in a VW Microbus with an artist collective called Dawnglow Machine. To this day, when it sees other filberts growing straight and tall and producing nuts, it shakes its head and thinks, “Man, what a bunch of squares, man.” Kinda sad, really.

    Plant: Metallic Palm (Chamaedorea metallica) | Favorite Band: pre-1994 Metallica

    Metallic PalmMetallica
    (Metallica photo via Kreepin Deth/Wikimedia Commons CC BY 3.0

    Because post-1993 Metallica is nobody’s favorite band.

    Plant: Century Plant (Agave americana) | Favorite Band (Artist): Jeff Buckley

    Century PlantJeff Buckley CDs
    (Century Plant photo via WRT3/Wikimedia Commons CC BY SA 3.0, Jeff Buckley photo via nlaspf/Flickr CC BY NC ND 2.0)

    Century plant uses a reproductive strategy called semelparity. It grows for 10, 20, 30 years or more, then produces a single, glorious flowering stalk. Towering up to 40 feet high, rich with nectar and pollen, and producing edible seeds, it is truly a wonder of nature that anyone should feel blessed to have experienced. And then the whole plant dies…

    I’ve really depressed myself now.

    Moving on…

    Plant: Hosta (Hosta spp.) | Favorite Band: U2

    (Hosta photo via El Grafo/Wikimedia Commons CC BY SA 3.0, U2 photo via Zachary Gillman/Wikimedia Commons CC BY 2.5)

    Look, I like The Joshua Tree as much as the next guy, and hostas can find a place in just about any shade garden (like mine, for example.) But I’d bet dollars to donuts that an image search for ‘banal ubiquity’ turns up photos of Bono in a hosta nursery. These two are safe bets, reliable but never spectacular, the Toyota Camrys of music and horticulture. So when a hosta hits the iTunes store, it searches U2 first, then Taylor Swift for a little variety and some Dave Matthews Band if it’s feeling nostalgic. But don’t pity U2 – their harmless consistency has netted the band members a combined €632,535,925 (about $818,985,376) according to The Sunday Times. Reportedly, half of all album sales are to hostas.

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  • Madison Vorva, Lending a Helping Hand in Nature's Struggle


    Tags: Nature's Struggle, extinction, Endangered Species, orangutan, conservation, nature museum, palm oil

    Created: 9/11/2014      Updated: 8/9/2016

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    Today’s post was contributed by Madison Vorva of Project ORANGS. Madison and her friend Rhiannon Tomitshen founded Project ORANGS in 2007 to raise awareness about the plight of the orangutan and the deforestation tactics used to source palm oil. The pair have been spotlighted in our “Nature’s Struggle: Survival & Extinction” exhibit for their work.

    My first trip to the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum was in 2010 for Rishi Tea’s launch party with Dr. Jane Goodall. I was so excited to return to see the “Nature’s Struggle: Survival and Extinction” exhibit. The environmental problems our planet faces today are massive, with no “black and white” quick fix, but this exhibit does an excellent job of breaking down these complexities to kids. It is so important to empower young people to recognize that while nature is gravely threatened, we can each do something about it beginning with our everyday choices and unique passions.

    Madison Vorva in Nature's Struggle

    Today, I’m a 19-year-old sophomore at Pomona College, but I became an environmental activist when I was 11 years old. In 2007, I decided to earn my Girl Scout Bronze Award by raising awareness about the plight of the orangutan. I learned that their rainforest habitat in Indonesia and Malaysia is being rapidly deforested for palm oil plantations. In Indonesia, deforestation is responsible for 80% of the country’s carbon dioxide emissions, making it the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world behind the United States and China. Today, palm oil is the most widely used vegetable oil in the world, and this ingredient is in about 50% of the products in American grocery stores.

    After learning that palm oil was in Girl Scout cookies, my friend and I launched Project ORANGS to get Girl Scouts USA to use a deforestation-free source of palm oil. Partnering with Climate Advisers, the Rainforest Action Network and the Union of Concerned Scientists, I’ve organized the support of over 140,000 consumers and my hero, Dr. Jane Goodall, through online petitions and letter writing campaigns. Through interviews in The Wall Street Journal, TIME Magazine, NPR, CBS’s Early Show, and ABC World News, millions of consumers have been educated about the impacts of their daily purchases. Working with the Philadelphia Zoo, we designed a “Guardian of the Rainforest” badge which hundreds of Scouts have earned (and you can too!). In 2011, Girl Scouts USA announced a palm oil policy, the first policy change driven by the efforts of girls in the organization’s 100+ year history. In 2014, Kellogg’s, a Girl Scout Cookie baker, announced a deforestation-free palm oil policy for its entire product line.

    Palm oil free cookies interactive in Nature'S Struggle exhibit

    For any museum visitor inspired by “Nature’s Struggle”, check out Jane Goodall’s Roots & Shoots program which supports young people making a difference for people, animals and the environment. No matter your age, never underestimate your ability to make our world more peaceful and just. As Dr. Jane says, “If you really want something, and really work hard, and take advantage of opportunities, and never give up, you will find a way.”

    Madison Vorva in Nature's Struggle exhibit

    Madison Vorva 

    Founder, Project ORANGS
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  • Eulogy for the Passenger Pigeon


    Tags: passenger pigeon, extinction, extant, bird, ornithology, passenger pigeon extinct, 1914, Cincinnati Zoo, conservation

    Created: 9/2/2014      Updated: 8/9/2016

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    September 1st marked the 100th anniversary of the death of Martha, the last passenger pigeon. To mark this somber occasion, and to help prevent another such extinction from occurring, Senior Curator of Urban Ecology Steve Sullivan has written this eulogy for this beautiful bird.

    Imagine a bird shaped a bit like a mourning dove but much larger, with slate blue on its back, salmon pink on its breast, and an opalescent necklace of green and pink. This bird lived in flocks so large they would darken the sky, sometimes for three days, as they passed overhead. Their wing beats were strong enough to cool the air and loud enough to frighten horses. People could kill 1,200 of these birds before breakfast.

    Passenger Pigeon specimen

    This bird was the passenger pigeon. An endemic North American species—one found nowhere else. Larger than the carrier pigeon, also known as the homing or messenger pigeon, that domesticated bird brought by the earliest colonists of our continent. Though this non-native bird was also prized for its meat, the passenger pigeon was free for the taking and better tasting.

    Today, the non-native carrier pigeon loafs in the rafters of the subway and poops on statues in the park of cities around the world. The passenger pigeon, whose population was included billions of individuals, is gone. Extinct. We ate them all and left just a few skins to be studies in museum collections around the world.

    Today, we continue to consume. Everything we have ever touched and nearly everything we’ve ever even seen was grown from the earth or dug out of it. When we buy a product, a hole is created in the earth on our behalf. What will we fill that hole back up with? Something that can re-enter the ecological cycle and preserve choice and freedom and health for future generations? Or will we leave a dirty, toxic earth where one place looks essentially like every other place?

    The story of the PP continues today, from the once abundant monarch butterflies and little brown bats of American neighborhoods, to animals that live half a world away but are impacted by our purchasing decisions. Every time we eat palm oil, buy a new electronic gadget, or try to keep up with the Jones’s, our purchases contribute to resource extraction that can result in catastrophic extinctions like that predicted for wild gorillas and orangutans in the near future.

    Passenger Pigeon specimen

    I see three fundamental reasons to conserve biodiversity: utility, aesthetics, ethics. 

    Utility:  What good was the passenger pigeon? You and I can’t enjoy the kinds of meals that most of the country ate from time to time, from the earliest people to come to this continent til the late 1800’s. If your family line goes back more than 3 or 4 generations in the US, your ancestors probably ate passenger pigeon. But you cannot. We can’t use the bird’s down and feathers. For those who enjoy hunting, they can’t have the challenge of pursuing this bird that could fly 60 miles per hour. We have lost the ecological functions of the birds as food to other animals (from the peregrine falcon to the endearing American burying beetle), their function as seed dispersers for some of our favorite hardwoods like beech, and their function as competitors with animals like mice. The absence of passenger pigeons allows mice to thrive in unprecedented numbers, providing homes for more ticks than ever, and putting you at greater risk for acquiring Lyme disease as you hike or even just work in your garden. 

    Aesthetics:  Beauty is subjective, but most would agree that the individual bird is pleasing to look at, their flocks awe-inspiring, and their effects on generations of forests gratifying.

    Ethics:  Who are we, a bipedal, binocular, megacephalic, sparsely-furred primate, to say, “You’re useless, you’re ugly, you deserve to die!”?

    Perhaps none of us really feel any different as a result of the loss of the passenger pigeon, yet our life experience is different than it could have been. Maybe the passenger pigeon is not really an “important” species to ensure the survival of humans. But which one is? How do we know? When will we know? Certainly the great web of life that we, as a species, rely on has key players. Will our human activities unravel the web too much?

    I hope this tragic centenary will stimulate people to live more sustainably. Reduce your consumption to the minimum. Recycle to the maximum. Don’t worry about how much your neighbors have; set an example of how much one can live without. Do you need a new cell phone every time the contract is up? Do you need a new car, or boat, or tv, or pool, etc., just because your neighbors bought one or your kids bug you for one? Skip processed food, turn off lights, car pool. You’ve heard lots of options. Take the time during this centenary year to find ways that work for you to reduce your impact on the earth and help others to do the same. Make the loss of the passenger pigeon have some redemptive value in your own life.

    Visit for ideas and more information on this remarkable species.

    Steve Sullivan, Senior Curator of Urban Ecology

    Passenger Pigeon feather

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  • Year of the Passenger Pigeon


    Tags: passenger pigeon, extinction, extant, bird, ornithology, passenger pigeon extinct, 1914, Cincinnati Zoo, conservation

    Created: 8/27/2014      Updated: 8/25/2015

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    September 1, 2014 marks 100 years since the extinction of the majestic passenger pigeon. Though much has changed over the last century, this extinction is still relevant today and should not be dismissed. Over the past year the Nature Museum, as well as many others, have worked to bring attention to this bird that once numbered in the billions. Below is a special guest blog from Joel Greenberg, Nature Museum researcher and author of A Feathered River Across the Sky: The Passenger Pigeon's Flight to Extinction.

    Passenger Pigeon Specimen

    "Big Blue", passenger pigeon specimen residing at Millikin University, Illinois

    The passenger pigeon was unlike any other bird in at least three important respects. It had a huge population, probably in the billions, but certainly the most abundant bird in North America if not the world. Second, it would aggregate in vast numbers that are difficult to imagine today: as just two examples, John James Audubon reported a flight that darkened the sky for three days. And as a segue to point three, a three-day movement of the species in Ontario in May of around 1860 likely exceeded two billion birds. Yet despite that abundance, it was extinct in the wild by 1902 and extinct everywhere on the afternoon of September 1, 1914 when the last of the species died in the Cincinnati Zoo. What happened to the bird? In the words of filmmaker David Mrazek, "we" happened to the bird, subjecting the species to unrelenting killing throughout the years.

    I have been working on passenger pigeons since August 2009. I started with research for a book, and that expanded into a vision of using the 2014 anniversary of the pigeon's extinction as a teaching moment to tell people about the bird and to emphasize aspects of the story that are still critically relevant today. Other people had similar ideas. We had an opportunity to convene in one place when the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum hosted this important meeting in February 2011. There were folks from a range of disciplines and institutions including the Smithsonian, Cornell University, Wesleyan (CT), Michigan State University, University of Louisiana, Indiana State Museum, Philadelphia Academy of Sciences (now Drexel Institute), University of Wisconsin, and Illinois Natural History Survey. And out of that gathering emerged Project Passenger Pigeon.

    We had big plans. The amazing thing is that even with little money raised for P3, many of those plans have been realized. The web site was a huge undertaking and required major help from web-site designer George Mrazek; Steve Sullivan and colleagues from Notebaert; and the Cincinnati Zoo. I traveled to cities like Lansing, Minneapolis, Columbus, Pittsburgh, Indianapolis, and Cambridge spreading the word (Steve Sullivan was a partner in many of these excursions.). A symphony about passenger pigeons that was performed once in the 1850s will be performed at least twice this year, once in Madison and once in New Haven. My book, A Feathered River Across the Sky: The Passenger Pigeon's Flight to Extinction, was released in January 2014, the same day I appeared on the Dianne Rehm national radio show. It has been reviewed very favorably in a number of national publications. The very first public program was a reception held at Peggy Notebaert. (About 200 people were in attendance.) The documentary that David Mrazek and I worked on, From Billions to None: The Passenger Pigeon's Flight to Extinction, was funded through a crowd sourcing effort spear-headed by David. The world premier was shown at Notebaert and over 150 people showed up. (The movie will be airing on WTTW at 10 pm on September 11.) In June, Notebaert opened their wonderful exhibit on extinction, Nature's Struggle: Survival & Extinction.

    So this has been a long haul with lots of talks yet to come (by years end I will have given over 60 talks in 23 states and one province). The Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum has been an enthusiastic partner through it all. I really want to thank Deb, Marc, Steve, Doug, Rafael, Alvaro, and everyone else at the Notebaert who have contributed so much to making this centenary so effective as a teaching moment.

    Joel Greenberg
    Author and Nature Museum Researcher 

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  • Frog Facts and Toad Tidbits


    Tags: frogs, toads, animal feeding, crickets, amphibians, frog, toad

    Created: 8/7/2014      Updated: 8/9/2016

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    At the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, volunteers feed different groups of animals on different days as part of public interpretative programs (PIP). Recently, to keep things fresh for volunteers and visitors, the schedule was shuffled, and now aquatic animals are fed on Monday, fish on Tuesday, Blanding’s turtles on Wednesday, water snakes on Thursday, box turtles on Friday, and endangered turtles on Saturday.

    Leopard Frog with cricket sitting on top of its head
    Leopard Frog wearing his lunch

    And on Sunday, frog and toad feeding takes place in the Look-in-Lab, where the volunteers offer crickets by hand or tweezers to the anurans in tanks along the viewing window. (Frogs and toads belong to the order of amphibians called “anura” so collectively are referred to as “anurans.”) The session is entertaining for visitors; they laugh when a volunteer involuntarily jerks her hand back as the critter grabs mouth first for its meal (you tell yourself not to, but it is a reflex that is hard to overcome), and they applaud when the critter gets the cricket. To make the feeding educational as well, other volunteers stand on the public side of the window to provide visitors information about frog and toad diets and habits.

    Fowler's Toad
    Fowler's Toad

    Frogs and toads are usually sit-and-wait predators, relying on camouflage to hide their motionless bodies until an unsuspecting potential meal moves within reach of a lunge and “lingual flip:” the tongue flips out and slaps on the target and then flips back with the prey stuck on. This capture technique is made possible by a tongue that is attached to the front of the jaw and free at the back (unlike those of humans and other animals) and by a gummy mucous exuded at the instant of contact. Thus, the anuran tongue does not shoot out like the tongue of a chameleon or a cartoon frog. The whole action takes less than 15/100ths of a second, faster than our eyes can follow. Below is a cool, slow motion video of a leopard frog flipping up a waxworm with its tongue.

    Frogs and toads have teeth but only along their upper jaws. Their teeth are weak and are not used to chew or tear, but to hold prey before it is gulped down whole. Their eyes help anurans swallow their meals; an emphatic blink presses their eyeballs through holes in the skull, pushing food down the throat.

    Cricket Frog
    Cricket Frog

    Most frogs and toads eat insects, spiders, worms, larvae, and slugs, although larger species may also eat small birds, reptiles, or amphibians. Every two to three weeks, the Museum orders 2,500 crickets (1,000 small, 1,000 medium, and 500 large) -- between 65,000 and 44,000 a year. They are fed not only to the frogs and toads, but also to the Museum’s salamanders, some turtles, aquatic insects, and spiders.

    The Museum has 12 species of anurans, all also found wild in Illinois: Fowler’s toad, American toad, pickerel frog, green frog, leopard frog, plains leopard frog, chorus frog, cricket frog, wood frog, green tree frog, Cope’s tree frog, and gray tree frog.

    Cindy Gray
    PIP and Animal Care Volunteer 

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  • TEENs Summer Program


    Tags: TEENS, summer project, after school matters, hive chicago, citizen science, data collection, scientists

    Created: 7/10/2014      Updated: 8/9/2016

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    This summer, with support from After School Matters and the Mozilla Foundation (through Hive Chicago) 32 high school students are participating in the Nature Museum's TEENS (Teenagers Exploring and Explaining Nature and Science) program. The students are learning ecological and environmental monitoring techniques, data collection methods and are learning basic digital mapping skills to share what they have learned with their peers and the wider science community. This blog, written solely by one of the participants, is a great introduction to experiences of their first two weeks.

    Hm...where should I start?

    I’m Ashley Guzman, a rising senior at Walter Payton College Prep. I started the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum Program for Teens in the middle of June. It’s the first After School Matters program I’ve taken part in, and so far I’ve been having a lot of fun.

    During our first week, we focused on introductions. We met the group of around 30 students and 4 instructors we would be working with, and began a conversation about our goals for the summer. A group goal we established was our hopes to become citizen scientists- everyone has the potential to be a citizen scientist. We defined a citizen scientist as someone who takes action in their scientific community; in our case, it’s contributing meaningful data as well as working to restore our environment, which I’ll get into later. By the end of this program, our collection will culminate in self directed projects that could launch us towards solutions and information, even on a smaller scale.

    Small pond on Nature Museum grounds
    Pond on South Wall of Nature Museum

    We started off collecting data on epicollect, a handy little app on our tablets that allows us to collect data while cataloguing the approximate area we found the data in. We started off with qualitative, observation based data. We took notice of the different plants that existed in the area, taking trips around our research area in Lincoln Park to note the diversity. We went through using dichotomous keys, which helped us identify the different plants based on specific details about them. I started noticing things like the patterns of leaves on plants, their petals, length, and the like because of these keys. We went through a similar process when identifying and cataloguing trees. I’m curious about these tags I’ve found on the trees in my neighborhood, perhaps the city has a similar plan?

    By being more aware of the types of trees and plants in the area, we can be more careful to preserve them. Like ash trees, which I’ve now learned are dying out due to the emerald ash borer (thank you Dave!).

    Bureau of Forestry Tree Tag
    Bureau of Forestry Tree Tag

    Today, after doing work both inside and outside of the lab to gain more knowledge about biodiversity, our group merged and brainstormed; we pointed out observations that stood out to us and observations that could possibly direct us to our final project ideas. I want to point out something that my friend Richard said; he pointed out that he couldn’t seem to avoid bees while we were collecting data by North Pond, which had a high water level due to heavy rains. I wanted to thank him, because it’s observations like that that send my brain into a flurry of ideas, which I’m sure happens to others as well. I started thinking about something I had seen on tumblr, which said that you should give a bee water mixed in with sugar if you see that it’s stuck out of flight, because it’s likely due to exhaustion. I try not to accept these things as pure fact, because everything should be questioned! However, I wondered if this could have something to do with all of the bees near North Pond. Is this going to be my final project? Well, maybe, but I have time to collect more data, make more observations, and develop my hypothesis. I just wanted to give you an example of this train of thought, and express how much I like this kind of conversation! Sometimes, introducing observations that you didn’t think much of originally can lead into a great investigation. I’m glad we’re going to get more chances to have these kinds of discussions.

    Until then, I will leave you with this: don’t scratch your mosquito bites. They aren’t that bad.

    Also, just a fun little frog we found in the forest preserve we visited!

    Baby frog resting on a student's hand

    Ashley Guzman
    TEENs Summer Program Participant 

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  • The Benefits of Weeds


    Tags: weeds, violets, maple tree, lake trout, spring

    Created: 6/10/2014      Updated: 8/9/2016

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    Ok. Ok. There are a lot of Norway maple haters out there, and I think they are justified in their position.  I agree with everything Seth said in this post, and I’d certainly see a sugar maple instead of a Norway.  That said, there’s an old one outside my house and everyone (including me) enjoys the shock of bright yellow when the leaves turn colors overnight in the autumn. Few people though notice the flowers of the maple. Lots of trees flower before they leaf out in the spring and maples are among these. The flowers are pretty small and the petals are about the same color as the bracts, resulting in a powdery yellow cloud appearing in a cloud around the twigs of the tree. If you’re lucky enough to have squirrels in your neighborhood, you may notice them clipping off these flowers. They are doing this to access the sweet sap, maple syrup in the raw, and unintentionally they are pruning the tree, keeping it a nice, compact shape. They are also delivering little monochromatic bouquets of maple flowers to you.  My kids have been decorating the dinner table with bowls of floating bouquets of maple flowers and arranging them in tiny vases in their doll house. Take a moment to give inconspicuous flowers like those of the maple a close look. You’ll find a cheerful beauty.

    Norway Maple Blooms
    Norway Maple Blooms

    Speaking of cheerful weeds, violets are blooming in profusion these days. Sure they’re weedy but they are not to aggressive and I think they are cute. Plus, their flowers make any dish more beautiful. Sometimes the flowers even have a delicate violet pastille flavor, but you can’t guarantee this with the weedy ones.


    Finally, this is the week to work on garlic mustard. It’s a vilified weed in this country and rightfully so.  It crowds out our native wildflowers both physically and chemically. (Within its native range, it is a valued wildflower itself and host of a butterfly). Wherever you see it, pull up the beast. This is the best time of year to do so because it has not begun to seed and the soil is easy to work. You may see patches of trillium, ginger or other wildflowers that are surrounded by garlic mustard. Help them out and carefully pull all the mustard nearby. Make sure to clean your boots and pats when you are done though, especially once the plants begin to set seed. It has been observed that garlic mustard is often more common in the gardens of nature lovers and their neighbors. Presumably we are tracking seeds around. 

    Lake Trout with garlic mustard pesto
    Lake Trout with garlic mustard pesto

    The reason this is my favorite week for pulling garlic mustard though is because the plants have begun to bolt—they’re sending their flower stalks up. Pick these stalks before many flowers have opened and steam them as you might asparagus, or mince them into a pesto. You can eat the leaves, too but they are often more bitter. No matter what, I like to add quite a bit of salt to counteract the bitterness and I often cook the shoots with an acid like lime juice or balsamic vinegar, depending on the cuisine. You can often add garlic mustard to Southeast Asian dishes without modifying the recipe. Burmese and Cambodian both regularly make use of bitter herbs; my daughters love adding garlic mustard to Vietnamese spring rolls. As with violets, since these are not cultivated m the flavor can vary from plant to plant so taste as you pick. By adding a bit of garlic mustard to your springtime diet you are helping native ecosystems, eating sustainably, and adding interesting variety to your diet. 

    Steve Sullivan, Senior Curator of Urban Ecology

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  • Spring Flowers Around the Museum


    Tags: spring flowers, prairie, savanah, horticulture, wildflowers

    Created: 5/18/2014      Updated: 8/9/2016

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    Walk around the restored habitat vignettes on the East and South sides of the museum grounds, and you may notice much of what you see is last year’s dead vegetation, with patches of green and a mixture of native and non-native flowers. Early spring on the prairie is a notoriously dull time for flowers, compared to woodlands or savannas. This is in part due to the fact that, in woodlands, the herbaceous layer is in a race to grow and flower before the trees fully leaf out and gobble up the available light. This results in a floral display intensely concentrated in late April and early May. In prairies, there is no shortage of light and therefore no hurry. Here, the greatest number of species flower in mid to late summer. In addition, tallgrass prairies (and, to a lesser degree, savannas) tended to burn more often in early spring than dense woodlands. This could also be a factor in why saving the flower show for later would be advantageous. Our native habitat restorations are a mixture of both prairie and savanna. Many of the native plants in bloom around the museum are found in both.
    I have compiled a list of native species that are in bloom this week. This isn’t meant to be a field guide, but could save time for anyone interested in doing an internet search on a plant they see. I  have attempted to include every native species, but It changes fast, and this list will be obsolete soon!  (Also, there are several species of the Sedge Family (Cyperaceae), in addition to the two I have listed, which cannot be identified until their seeds ripen)   

    These are the native species which we have intentionally planted:

    White Trout Lilly

    White Trout Lilly (Erythronium albidum) We have already missed this one’s blooming period, but some may have noticed this plant a couple weeks ago. A small but conspicuous part of our early spring flora.  It grows in large colonies, usually with the basal leaves far outnumbering the flowering stalks. The number of plants which flower varies greatly from year to year. This plant can be seen in almost any moderately intact woodland or savanna near Chicago in the early spring, and often ventures into nearby prairies as well. Around the Museum, they can be seen in greatest number in the Prairie on the southern side. The show doesn’t last long however, and within a few weeks the flowers and leaves seem to vanish without a trace, until next spring.

    Penn’s Sedge

    Penn’s Sedge (Carex pensylvanica)  Most people may not think of grasses or sedges as flowers, but if you look closely in certain spots around the museum’s restored areas, you will notice what looks like patches of thin grass with tiny yellow flower petals at the end of short stalks. Actually, this is not a grass but a sedge- a similar looking, but different family of plants. The differences between grasses and sedges are a bit complex to get into here, but an age old rule-of-thumb cliché is that “Sedges have edges.” The base of a Sedge stem is solid and triangular, while grasses have hollow, round stems.  It may be difficult to see, but if you roll the base of a sedge stem between your fingers, you can feel the “edges.” If not, it is probably a grass. This sedge is also a trademark of Chicago area woodlands and nearby prairies that are not too shady. It is one of the first sedges to bloom, and its flowers are also extremely short-lived. The leaves remains visible until at least late summer however. Around the museum, it can be seen in patches all over, especially along the trail to the right of the entrance doors, and on the north side of the “ravine” in back, just before it meets North Pond.

    Jacob’s Ladder

    Jacob’s Ladder (Polemonium reptans) Another attractive purple flower with “ladder-like” leaves which will persist until June. Grows in damp meadows and woods with rich soil. More occasional around Chicago than common. Very conspicuous on the hill facing Fullerton Ave. at the moment.

    Golden Alexanders

    Golden Alexanders (Zizia aurea) Found in prairies to open woods, this bright yellow flower is just beginning to bloom.

    Wild garlic/onion

    Wild garlic/onion (Allium canadense) Not quite in bloom yet but will be soon.  One of two species around Chicago (and the museum) this one blooms earlier than the other.

    Shooting Star

    Shooting Star (Dodecatheon meadia)-One of the earliest blooming Prairie Plants. It is distinctive, conventionally attractive, and quite popular in restoration projects and prairie gardens. It can be found in both prairie and savanna/open woodland. It is somewhat sensitive to disturbance, and unless reintroduced, indicates the land has not been plowed or  too heavily grazed. Currently, it has just began to flower, and will do so for about a month. A colony can be seen on the hill on the right side of the museum entrance.

    In addition to the Native plants we have intentionally planted, there are others that are not as sensitive to habitat disturbance, and came here on their own. These are some weedy natives:

    Common Wood Sedge

    Common Wood Sedge (Carex blanda)  This is probably the most common sedge of the Chicago region, and also one of the most bland-looking.  It has much wider, floppier leaves and stems than Penn’s sedge, and is a grayish blue-green color. (though the petals are also yellow).  It will grow almost anywhwere.

    Common Blue violet

    Common Blue violet (Viola sororia) Very common in our area, this species is unusual in its adaptability. It can be found in almost any habitat that is not too wet or dry; full sun to dense shade, pristine natural areas to mowed lawns. It has a long blooming period of a month or two. Around the museum, I have only seen a few near the tent out back (the blue variety) 

    Missouri Violet

    Missouri Violet (Viola missouriensis) Almost identical to common Blue Violet, except for its leaves, which are triangular and pointed, rather than heart shaped and round. Near Chicago, it is most often seen in moist woodlands and meadows, though it can sometimes be seen in more disturbed habitats as well, such as here.

    (Note - These two violet species caused me quite a bit of confusion. The majority of the plants around the museum are apparently of the white variety of Missouri Violet. Both have a blue and white variety. The white form is less common but not rare, especially with Common Blue Violet. In the Chicago region, The Missouri Violet is less common in general, and is less likely to occur in lawns and gardens, though around the museum, the reverse is apparently true!)

    Kidney-leaved Buttercup

    Kidney-leaved Buttercup (Ranuculus aborvitus) Blooms April-June. Part of the huge family of buttercups (Ranunculaceae), this one is the first to bloom and, of the natives in this area, the least sensitive to disturbance.  It can be found in almost any slightly damp place. This one came here on its own.

    Aunt Lucy

    Aunt Lucy (Ellisia nyctelea) Just beginning to bloom, and will continue into early summer. The flowers are very small, a dull white and easy to miss. This plant is a spring wildflower in woodlands but also a very common weed in gardens and disturbed ground.

    Purslane Speedwell

    Purslane Speedwell (Veronica peregrine) Very tiny and easy to miss, it looks very similar to the other, non-native Corn Speedwell, except with thinner leaves and white flowers.

    Nate Fremont
    Assistant Horticulturist

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  • Motion Film Collection Highlight: Leon F. Urbain (1887-ca. 1980)


    Tags: Chicago Academy of Sciences, collections, motion film, Leon F. Urbain, microscopy, photography, moth, minerals, Microscopal Society of Illinois

    Created: 4/11/2014      Updated: 8/9/2016

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    This blog post continues our Motion Film Project series. Post #1 titled: The Motion Picture Cataloguing Project can be viewed here. Stay tuned for a third blog post coming soon.

    Leon F. Urbain, through his association with the Microscopal Society of Illinois, gave free classes for students in the 1960s at the Chicago Academy of Sciences' museum (the old Laflin Memorial Building). An architect by trade, he had a passion for photography, especially photomicrography, whereby he could bring the smallest worlds to life. His motion films include studies of minerals, plants, insects, aquatic life, and ecology. The Academy's collections include personal papers, photographs, motion film, and microscope slides from Urbain. Here is a sample of those tiny worlds Urbain captured and shared with others.

    From Urbain's film, “The Regal: Rarest of Local Moths,” created in 1972:

    Film still of Regal Caterpillars
    Regal Caterpillars

    Film still of Regal Moth
    Regal Moth Face

    Film still Regal Moth
    Regal Moth

    Here are images from a  time-lapse film of crystals growing under a microscope, titled "Crystals Growing," created in 1967:

    Film still of crystals growing

    Film still of crystals growing

    Film still of crystals growing

    Film still of crystals growing

    Images from two films on moths, ca. 1958, "Cecropia" and "Luna Moth:"

    Cecropia moths mating
    Cecropia moths mating

    Luna moth
    Luna moth

    Dawn Roberts
    Collections Manager

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